Make the refried black beans:Coat the bottom of a large saucepan with oil and place it over medium heat. When the oil is hot, add the onion and sauté until it’s soft and translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and cumin, and continue to sauté until very fragrant, about 1 minute more. Add the beans and broth. Raise heat to high and bring the broth to a simmer. Lower the heat and allow to cook for about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the beans begin to soften up. Use a fork or potato masher to mash about 1/3 of the beans (or more if you prefer). Allow the beans to continue simmering over low heat for about 10 minutes, adding some water to the pot if they become too dry.
Remove from heat and season with salt and pepper to taste.
Make the carrot rice:While the beans cook, place the carrots into the bowl of a food processor fitted with an S-blade, and pulse until they’re chopped into pieces about the sizes of rice grains. Work in batches if you can’t easily fit all of the carrots in your food processor.
Coat the bottom of a large nonstick skillet with oil and place over medium heat. Add the carrots, cumin, ancho chile powder and lime juice. Cook, flipping frequently with a spatula, until the carrots are tender, about 5 minutes. Season with salt and pepper to taste, then divide the carrot rice among 6 bowls.
Make the veggie:Using the same skillet you cooked the carrot rice in, raise the heat to medium-high. Add the pepper and onion. Cook for about 5 minutes, flipping with a spatula occasionally, until the veggies are tender and browned in spots. Add the lime juice and flip to coat the veggies. Remove from heat, stir in the cilantro and season with salt and pepper to taste.
Divide the refried beans among the bowls with the carrot rice, then top with the veggies and toppings of choice. Serve.